Access agreements, and thus OFFA’s remit, concern students from ‘under-represented and disadvantaged groups’. These groups can include (but are not limited to):
- people from low income backgrounds (the definition of ‘low income’ varies from year to year: more details)
- people from lower socio-economic groups or from neighbourhoods where higher education participation is low, including White males from economically disadvantaged backgrounds (more details)
- Black and minority ethnic groups
- disabled people
- mature and part-time learners
- care leavers
- people estranged from their families
- people from gypsy and Traveller communities.
- people with mental health problems, Specific Learning Difficulties and/or who are on the autism spectrum
- children from military families.
Some of these students face particular issues. Our guidance does not provide an exhaustive list. Institutions should use their own data, and research to understand the issues that affect their student population. You should also refer to our annual strategic guidance, which provides further information relevant to specific years.
Further information on target groups
Our definition of ‘low-income background’ is based on household income and varies from year to year, in line with the government’s tiers for maintenance grants or loans. Here is a list:
|Access agreement year||‘Low-income’ threshold (household income)|
A recent report from the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills (BIS) shows that only around 10 per cent of White British men from the most disadvantaged backgrounds go into higher education; they are five times less likely to enter higher education than the most advantaged White men, and less likely to enter higher education than men from all other ethnic groups. Institutions should consider how they might ensure that this group is targeted through access work.
While working to support access for white males from economically disadvantaged backgrounds, it is important to understand that socio-economic disadvantage affects all groups. For example UCAS data (UCAS, 2015 End of Cycle Report (2015)) showed that White British females eligible for free school meals are the second least likely group to progress to higher education. The Social Mobility Advisory Group’s final report (Working in partnership: enabling social mobility in higher education (2016)) reinforces the message that socio-economic disadvantage continues to be the most significant driver of inequality in terms of access to and outcomes from higher education, regardless of ethnicity or gender.
Research and analysis by the Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE publication 2014/03, Differences in degree outcomes: Key findings) shows significant variations in degree outcome for students from different ethnicities. In addition, research from BIS (BIS Research Paper 186, Socio-economic, ethnic and gender differences in HE participation (2015)) indicates that some ethnic groups – specifically Black Caribbean and Other Black – are significantly less likely to attend higher tariff institutions that other ethnicities.
We expect all institutions to use their own internal data to explore whether there are differences across the student lifecycle by ethnicity and other protected characteristics, and to identify how they will look to address any differences identified.
‘Mature students’ in the context of access agreements refers to those aged 21 or over when they enter higher education.
These people are more likely than younger learners to have characteristics associated with disadvantage and under-representation in higher education. Research by million+ highlights that mature learners are more likely than younger learners to:
- have non-traditional qualifications
- come from lower socio-economic backgrounds
- have family or caring responsibilities
- be disabled
- be from black and minority ethnic groups
- leave higher education within a year of entering.
When writing your access agreement you should consider the different barriers mature learners may face in accessing, succeeding in, and progressing from higher education. If you have experienced a decline in the number of mature learners applying for higher education at your institution, you should consider committing some of your access expenditure to addressing this. In particular, you may want to consider how additional information, advice and guidance on the changes to the financial support available for part-time learners may help. Your plans may include working with communities and employers.
The Office for National Statistics forecasts a decline in the number of 18- and 19-year-olds until around 2020, and attracting older students may help you make further progress on widening participation and fair access.
Data from the Higher Education Statistics Agency in January 2016 showed a 10 per cent reduction in UK-domiciled part-time undergraduate entrants compared to 2013-14. This is part of a deeply worrying trend which has seen drastic year-on-year reductions in people choosing to study part-time.
We are concerned about the issues this decline raises for inclusion, equality and diversity. Disadvantaged young students are twice as likely to study part-time compared to the most advantaged. Part-time learners are also more likely to be women, and more likely to be mature learners.
It is critical that as a sector we work to reverse this decline. We understand that the reduction in part-time students will have affected some institutions more than others. However, given the particular equality and diversity implications, we believe all institutions have a responsibility to consider how they might work to support part-time learners.
You may include expenditure on access measures for part-time students in your access agreement regardless of whether you charge higher fees for part-time courses.
We strongly encourage you to consider what more you can do to attract and support part-time learners across the whole student lifecycle. As well as part-time study, we encourage you to think about how you might develop other flexible higher education study options that meet the needs of students and employers. This includes offering flexible routes into higher education, and innovative and responsive ways of studying – for example, two-year accelerated honours degrees.
When assessing your access agreement and expenditure plans, we will take into account the potential of such provision to attract students from under-represented groups, and the reduced cost to students of accelerated degrees.
It may help you to consider the recommendations about encouraging and supporting part-time study in Universities UK’s report The power of part-time and HEFCE’s Higher Education in England 2015 analysis.
The Action on Access briefing Social Mobility through Higher Education: Flexible Learning examines how different types of flexible learning can help to widen access and improve success for under-represented groups.
Department for Education statistics show that only about 6 per cent of young people who are in care aged 16 continue into higher education by the age of 19. Care leavers are therefore a severely under-represented group and improving access for care leavers remains an important priority.
People who have spent time in local authority care face cumulative and significant barriers to entering higher education including:
- lower attainment
- lack of positive role models
- low expectations from carers and advisers
- low aspirations
- concern about being able to afford higher education
- lack of information and advice prior to and at the point of application to university
- difficulty accessing the necessary financial support
- problems with accommodation
- low levels of personal and emotional support from professionals
- lack of personal support networks
- low levels of confidence to self-identify and ask for support pro-actively.
We encourage you to highlight any access and retention activity for care leavers throughout your access agreement and in your targets and milestones. We are particularly keen to hear about support for care leavers in the following areas:
- raising aspirations and achievements (e.g. working in partnership with local authorities/Health and Social Care Trusts, further education colleges, schools and other relevant organisations)
- admissions procedures
- providing information, advice and guidance (IAG), entry and ongoing pastoral, accommodation and financial support
- monitoring participation and activity
- raising of awareness of issues/barriers affecting care leavers across all university staff and departments
- IAG and support measures designed to help care leavers progress to employment or postgraduate study.
You may include the costs of these activities in your access agreement. We encourage you to develop your provision based on the principles of the Buttle UK Quality Mark framework or a similar standard. We are happy to discuss any proposed measures in advance of you submitting your agreement if you would find this helpful (contact your institution’s key policy adviser).
We strongly encourage you to target and provide support and services to these students across all stages of the student lifecycle. You can include the costs of these activities in your access agreement. We would be interested to hear of any support you offer care leavers, and encourage you to highlight any activities for care leavers throughout your agreement and in your targets and milestones.
With the phasing out of the Buttle UK Quality Mark for Care Leavers from July 2014, we want institutions to continue to build on their work – both individually and collaboratively – to support care leavers through their access agreements.
What state support is available for care leavers?
The Government acknowledges the problems that looked after children face in accessing higher education. Under the Children and Young Persons Act 2008, care leavers starting a recognised higher education course are entitled to a minimum one-off bursary of £2,000 from their local authority. This is in addition to anything else care leavers receive under the state support system of grants and loans.
Related guidance and resources
The National Network for the Education of Care Leavers (NNECL) provides higher education activities and resources for care leavers, children in care and those who support them.
Institute of education, Going to University from Care, 2005
The Buttle Trust UK, Buttle UK Quality Mark evaluation report, 2013, which makes a series of recommendations to improve levels of support across all institutions, and the Buttle UK framework which provides a structure and guidance on developing support.
The JISCMail Care Leavers in HEI network
Supporting Professionalism in Admissions, Using admissions to bridge the gap for care leavers, 2015
Research by Carers Trust and the University of Nottingham shows that young adult carers often struggle in higher education because of their caring responsibilities. The issues facing young carers include a lack of recognition of their support needs and problems accessing essential services.
We encourage you to consider the services you provide to support young carers and how these might align with or be strengthened through access agreements
There are particular barriers to access, success and progression for disabled students, some of which vary depending on students’ specific impairments or needs. In light of the Government’s changes to Disabled Students’ Allowances (DSA), it is particularly important to ensure that students receive accurate information from institutions about the support they can expect to receive and that institutions build on the work they are already doing to promote access, success and progression for disabled students.
Institutions have an obligation under the Equality Act 2010 to make reasonable adjustments for disabled students. We support and encourage institutions to go above and beyond meeting their basic legal requirements in order to promote access, student success and progression for disabled students.
OFFA guidance note on changes to DSA (includes guidance on what expenditure you may include in your access agreement in response to the DSA changes)
Page last updated: 9 February 2017